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互动百科原子发射光谱仪的详细先容
www2138com官网:0 发布时间:2016-11-24
 

  原子发射光谱仪

  Varian Vista Pro

  原子发射光谱仪是测定每种化学元素的气态原子或离子受激后所发射的特征光谱的波长及强度来确定物质中元素组成和含量。原子发射光谱仪,是将成分复杂的光分解为光谱线的科学仪器。原子发射光谱仪有火花原子发射光谱仪,光电原子发射光谱仪,手持式光谱仪,便携式光谱仪,能量色散光谱仪,真空原子发射光谱仪等多种品种。原子发射光谱仪广泛应用于铸造、钢铁、金属回收和冶炼以及军工、航天航空、电力、化工、高等院校和商检、质检等部门。

  Atomic emission spectrometer is the wavelength and intensity of the emitted spectral characteristics were measured for each of the chemical elements of gaseous atoms or ions stimulated after to determine material in pigment composition and content. Atomic emission spectrometer is a scientific instrument to decompose the complex optical components into spectral lines. Atomic emission spectrometer with spark atomic emission spectrometer, atomic emission spectrometer, portable spectrometer, portable spectrometer, energy dispersive spectrometer, vacuum atomic emission spectrometer and other varieties. Atomic emission spectrometry is widely used in casting, iron and steel, metal recovery and smelting and military, aerospace, power, chemical, higher education institutions and commodity inspection, quality inspection and other departments.

  定义

  Definition

  原子发射光谱仪是根据试样中被测元素的原子或离子,在光源中被激发而产生特征辐射,通过判断这种特征辐射波长及其强度的大小,对各元素进行定性分析和定量分析的仪器。

  Atomic emission spectrometer is based on atomic or ionic elements measured in the sample, in the light source was inspired by the characteristics of radiation, radiation wavelength and intensity of the feature size, the instrument of qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis of each element.

  构成

  constitute

  原子发射光谱仪,是将成分复杂的光分解为光谱线的科学仪器。它密封在一个温度稳定的恒温机箱里,设计小巧,操作简易,设备的搬运和操作只要一个人就能完成。这一类仪器一般包括:光源、单色器、检测器和独处器件。原子发射光谱仪装备了超高灵敏度的光电倍增管,在全量程范围内使检测器的动态范围能鉴别出成分的最微小的差别。原子发射光谱仪有火花原子发射光谱仪,光电原子发射光谱仪,手持式光谱仪,便携式光谱仪,能量色散光谱仪,真空原子发射光谱仪等多种品种。原子发射光谱仪广泛应用于铸造、钢铁、金属回收和冶炼以及军工、航天航空、电力、化工、高等院校和商检、质检等部门。

  Atomic emission spectrometer is a scientific instrument to decompose the complex optical components into spectral lines. It is sealed in a stable temperature cabinet, the design is small, easy to operate, equipment handling and operation as long as a person can be completed. This kind of instrument includes: light source, monochromator, detectors and device alone. Atomic emission spectrometer equipped with a super high sensitivity of the photoelectric multiplier tube, in the full range of the dynamic range of the detector can identify the composition of the smallest difference. Atomic emission spectrometer with spark atomic emission spectrometer, atomic emission spectrometer, portable spectrometer, portable spectrometer, energy dispersive spectrometer, vacuum atomic emission spectrometer and other varieties. Atomic emission spectrometry is widely used in casting, iron and steel, metal recovery and smelting and military, aerospace, power, chemical, higher education institutions and commodity inspection, quality inspection and other departments.

  基本部件

  basic components

  一、激发光源

  Excitation light source

  1、激发光源的作用

  1, the role of the excitation source

  作为光谱分析的光源对试样都具有两个作用:

  As the light source of the spectrum analysis, the sample has two functions:

  *把试样中的组分蒸发、解离为气态原子。

  * the component in the sample is evaporated and dissociated into a gaseous state.

  *使气态原子激发(即光源的主要作用是对试样的蒸发、解离和激发提供所需的能量)。

  * the main function of the light source is to provide the energy required for the evaporation, dissociation and excitation of the sample.

  2、激发光源的要求

  2, the requirements of the excitation light source

  激发能力强、灵敏度高、稳定性好、结构简单、操作方便、使用安全

  Strong excitation ability, high sensitivity, good stability, simple structure, convenient operation and safe use.

  3、常用的光源:直流电弧、低压交流电弧、高压火花和电感耦合等离子体(ICP)等。

  3, commonly used light source: DC arc, low voltage AC arc, high voltage spark and inductively coupled plasma (ICP), etc..

  4、光源的选择

  4, the choice of light source

  (1)、分析元素的性质

  (1) the nature of the elements

  元素的挥发性,以及它们的电离电位直接影响该元素的蒸发和激发。

  The volatility of the elements, and their ionization potentials directly affect the evaporation and excitation of the element.

  (2)、分析元素的含量

  (2) content of analytical elements

  对低含量元素,需要较高的绝对灵敏度,它不仅与激发温度有关,而且与蒸发温度有关。

  For low content elements, higher absolute sensitivity is needed. It is not only related to the excitation temperature, but also to the evaporation temperature.

  (3)试样的性质

  (3) the properties of the sample

  (4)、分析任务

  (4) analysis task

  5、样品导入光源的方法:固体自电极法、粉末法、溶液法、气态法

  5, sample introduction light source method: the solid self electrode method, the powder method, the solution method, the gas method

  二、色散仪

  Two, dispersion instrument

  作用:将光源发射的不同波长的光色散成为光谱或单色光。

  Effect: the light emission at different wavelengths of light dispersion become spectrum or monochromatic light.

  分类:按色散器件的不同可分为棱镜色散仪和光栅色散仪。

  Classification: according to the different dispersion device can be divided into prism dispersion instrument and grating dispersion instrument.

  构造:照明系统、准光系统、色散系统。

  Structure: lighting system, quasi optical system, dispersion system.

  三、检测器

  Three, detector

  在原子发射光谱法中,常用的检测方法有:目视法、摄谱法和光电法。

  In the atomic emission spectrometry, the commonly used detection methods are: visual method, spectral method and photoelectric method.

  这三种方法基本原理都相同,都是把激发试样获得的复合光通过入射狭缝照射到分光元件上,使之色散为光谱。然后通过测量谱线而检测试样中的分析元素,其区别就在于目视法用人眼去接受,摄谱法用感光板接受,光电法用光电倍增管接受。目前,广泛使用的是摄谱法。

  The basic principles of the three methods are the same, and the composite light which is obtained by the excitation sample is irradiated to the light splitting element through the entrance slit. And then by measuring the spectral lines and detection of the analysis of the elements in the sample, the difference lies in the visual method with the human eye to accept, the photographic spectrum method with a photographic plate to accept, photoelectric multiplier tube to accept. At present, the widely used is the perturbation method.

  特点

  Characteristic

  它具有样品用量少,应用范围广且快速,灵敏和选择性好等特点。

  It has the characteristics of less sample consumption, wide application range, rapid, sensitive and selective.

  应用

  application

  原子发射光谱仪主要应用于冶金、地质、石油、环保、化工、新材料、医药、卫生等方面的样品分析。

  Atomic emission spectrometer is mainly used in metallurgy, geology, petroleum, environmental protection, chemical industry, new materials, medicine, health and other aspects of the sample analysis.


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