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原子发射光谱仪详细先容Atomic emission spectrometer
www2138com官网:0 发布时间:2016-11-21
 

  定义

  Definition

  原子发射光谱仪是依据试样中被测元素的原子或离子,在光源中被激起而发生特征辐射,经过判别这种特征辐射波长及其强度的巨细,对各元素进行定性剖析和定量剖析的仪器。

  Atomic emission spectrometer is based on atomic or ionic elements measured in the sample, in the light source and radiation characteristics is aroused, after distinguishing this feature and strength of the size of the radiation wavelength, qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis instrument for each element.

  构成

  constitute

  原子发射光谱仪,是将成分杂乱的光分解为光谱线的科学仪器。它密封在一个温度安稳的恒温机箱里,设计细巧,操作简便,设备的转移和操作只要一个人就能完结。这一类仪器通常包含:光源、单色器、检查器和独处器材。原子发射光谱仪配备了超高灵敏度的光电倍增管,在全量程规模内使检查器的动态规模能鉴别出成分的最细小的不一样。原子发射光谱仪有火花原子发射光谱仪,光电原子发射光谱仪,手持式光谱仪,便携式光谱仪,能量色散光谱仪,真空原子发射光谱仪等多种种类。原子发射光谱仪广泛应用于铸造、钢铁、金属回收和锻炼以及军工、航天航空、电力、化工、高等院校和商检、质检等部分。

  Atomic emission spectrometer is a scientific instrument to decompose the components of the component into the spectral line. It is sealed in a temperature stable constant temperature cabinet, delicate design, simple operation, transfer and handling equipment as long as a person can. This kind of instrument usually comprises a light source, monochromator, checker and equipment alone. Atomic emission spectrometer equipped with photoelectric ultra sensitive photomultiplier tube in the whole range of the scale of the dynamic scale checker can identify the smallest components are not the same. Atomic emission spectrometer with spark atomic emission spectrometer, atomic emission spectrometer, portable spectrometer, portable spectrometer, energy dispersive spectrometer, vacuum atomic emission spectrometer and other kinds of. Atomic emission spectrometry is widely used in casting, iron and steel, metal recovery and training and military, aerospace, power, chemical, higher education institutions and commodity inspection, quality inspection and other parts.

  基本部件

  basic components

  一、激起光源

  Light source

  1、激起光源的效果

  1, arouse the effect of light source

  作为光谱剖析的光源对试样都具有两个效果:

  The light source as the spectrum analysis has two effects on the sample:

  *把试样中的组分蒸腾、解离为气态原子。

  The transpiration and dissociation of the components in the sample are gaseous atoms.

  *使气态原子激起(即光源的首要效果是对试样的蒸腾、解离和激起供给所需的能量)。

  (the primary effect of the light source is the energy required for the transpiration, dissociation, and supply of the sample.

  2、激起光源的请求

  2, the request of the light source

  激起能力强、灵敏度高、安稳性好、构造简略、操作便利、运用安全

  The ability is strong, the sensitivity is high, the stability is good, the construction is simple, the operation is convenient, the application is safe.

  3、常用的光源:直流电弧、低压沟通电弧、高压火花和电感耦合等离子体(ICP)等。

  3, commonly used light source: DC arc, low voltage communication arc, high voltage spark and inductively coupled plasma (ICP), etc..

  4、光源的挑选

  4, the selection of light source

  (1)、剖析元素的性质

  (1) the nature of the elements

  元素的挥发性,以及它们的电离电位直接影响该元素的蒸腾和激起。

  The volatility of the elements, and their ionization potentials directly influence the transpiration and the.

  (2)、剖析元素的含量

  (2) analysis of the content of elements

  对低含量元素,需求较高的肯定灵敏度,它不只与激起温度有关,并且与蒸腾温度有关。

  For low content elements, the higher demand is positive, it is not only related to the temperature, but also related to the transpiration temperature.

  (3)试样的性质

  (3) the properties of the sample

  (4)、剖析任务

  (4) analysis task

  5、样品导入光源的办法:固体自电极法、粉末法、溶液法、气态法

  5, the sample into the light source: the solid self electrode method, the powder method, the solution method, the gas method

  二、色散仪

  Two, dispersion instrument

  效果:将光源发射的不一样波长的光色散变成光谱或单色光。

  Effect: the source of different wavelengths of light dispersion into spectral or monochromatic light.

  分类:按色散器材的不一样可分为棱镜色散仪和光栅色散仪。

  Classification: according to the dispersion of the equipment is not the same as the prism dispersion instrument and grating dispersion.

  构造:照明体系、准光体系、色散体系。

  Structure: lighting system, quasi optical system, dispersion system.

  三、检查器

  Three, checker

  在原子发射光谱法中,常用的检查办法有:目视法、摄谱法和光电法。

  In the atomic emission spectrometry, the commonly used inspection methods are: visual method, spectral method and photoelectric method.

  这三种办法基本原理都相同,都是把激起试样取得的复合光经过入射狭缝照射到分光元件上,使之色散为光谱。然后经过丈量谱线而检查试样中的剖析元素,其差异就在于目视法用人眼去承受,摄谱法用感光板承受,光电法用光电倍增管承受。现在,广泛运用的是摄谱法。

  The basic principles of the three methods are the same, and the composite light which is made up of the sample is irradiated to the light splitting element through the entrance slit. And then through the measurement of spectral lines and inspection of the analysis of the elements in the sample, the difference lies in the visual method with the human eye to bear, and the use of photographic plate to bear, the photoelectric multiplier tube to bear. Now, widely used is the perturbation method.


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