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原子发射光谱的历史History of atomic emission spectroscopy
www2138com官网:0 发布时间:2016-10-25
 

这些独具匠心的光谱仪帮助人类制造了二战前无法想象的东西,但是这几种光谱又有一些天生的缺点:These help humans have great originality spectrometer made before World War II can't imagine things, but these spectral have some innate shortcomings:

4年,硅漂移探测器SDD被用于XRFIn 4 years, silicon drift detector SDD was used for XRF

6年,直读光谱仪再次升级。。看过前几集内容的同学都知道,这是隔壁“集成电路”贴的功劳,如果没有集成电路,大家可能还在使用原始的模拟火花光源……6 years, direct reading spectrometer upgrade again.. Read the contents of the previous few students are aware that this is next door to the "integrated circuit" of the credit, if there is no integrated circuit, we may also use the original simulation of the spark source......

ICP同样也对原子吸取造成了威胁,尤其是火焰法,因为空气-乙炔火焰温度太低了,一些重要的元素烧不出来。1966年,@MaxAmos和@JohnWillis使用了一种新的燃料:氧化亚氮-乙炔(分析圈注:氧化亚氮俗称笑气),这样就大大提高了原子吸取火焰的温度,可以用来分析原先无法检测的元素。原子吸取的应用范围也被拓宽了。ICP is also a threat to atomic absorption, especially in the flame, because the air - acetylene flame temperature is too low, some of the important elements are not burned out. In 1966, @MaxAmos and @JohnWillis using a new Nitrous Oxide fuel: acetylene (Note: Nitrous Oxide circle analysis commonly known as laughing gas), thus greatly improve the atomic absorption flame temperature, can be used to inspect the original elemental analysis. The application of atomic absorption has also been broadened.

直读光谱仪不能检测非金属;Non metal detection spectrometer cannot;

但是不管是ICP也好,原子吸取直读光谱仪也好,所有的光谱仪都使用了制作标(经)准(验)曲线的方法来检测样品。唯一的例外是XRF,昨天提到的美国科学家谢尔曼根据X射线的独特原理发明了“基本参数法”,纯粹通过数学计算来检测所有未知的样品。但是因为谢尔曼方程的变态复杂吊炸天,几乎没几个人类看得懂,所以FP法基本没人鸟。But whether it is ICP or atomic absorption spectrometer or all spectrometer are used for producing label (by) quasi (inspection) curve method to detect samples. The only exception is XRF, the American scientist Sherman, who was mentioned yesterday, has invented the "fundamental parameter method" based on the unique principle of X - ray. But because of the complexity of the Sherman equation hanging deep fried days, almost few people can understand, so FP law basically no one bird.

3年,尼通企业发明了世界上第一台手持式XRF。3 years, niton invented the world's first handheld XRF.

4年,@A.A.Sterk第一次使用了离子激发源用于生成X射线。For the first time in 4 years, @A.A.Sterk used an ion excitation source for the generation of X rays.

6年,美国加州大学伯克利分校的@HarryBowman和他的团队第一次使用了一台能量色散型X射线光谱仪(EDXRF)进行测样,并且获得了不错的效果。在当时以波长色散性XRF为主的年代,EDXRF极大地延伸了XRF的应用领域。也因为EDXRF的出现,XRF技术顶住了ICP带来的压力,成为了一些行业的主要的分析方法。In 6 years, @HarryBowman and his team at University of California at Berkeley used an energy dispersive X - ray spectrometer (EDXRF) for the first time, and a good result was obtained. At that time, in the era of wavelength dispersive XRF, EDXRF greatly extended the application field of XRF. Also because of the emergence of XRF, EDXRF technology to withstand the pressure of ICP, has become the main analysis of some of the industry.

原子吸取用于单个元素的化学分析;Chemical analysis of atomic absorption for individual elements;

0年,辉光放电再次吸引了分析圈内人的眼球,@Greene和@Whelan用辉光放电光源第一次画了一幅镀层浓度分布的图0 years, glow discharge again attracted the analysis of insider's eye, @Greene and @Whelan by glow discharge source first drew a coating concentration distribution map

在一些学(Zhai)者(Nan)努力提高各类光谱仪的应用范围,另一些人却始终认为现有的光谱仪仍旧不够穿越。即使ICP也必须将检测的样品溶解成液体才能分析,这样使用者就必需花费大量的时间在样品处理上。小编我曾经遇到一个用ICP的同行,他们老板要他把一台冰箱里每个零件都用ICP测一遍……后来……后来小编我就再也没见到这位化验员了……In some studies (Zhai) (Nan) efforts to improve the application of various types of spectrometer, and others have always considered that the existing spectrometer is still not enough to cross. Even if the ICP has to be dissolved into the liquid in order to analyze the detected samples, so that users will have to spend a lot of time on the sample processing. I used to have a small series of ICP counterparts, their boss wants him to put a refrigerator in every part of the ICP test again...... Later...... Later I would never see the small series of the laboratory staff......

分析圈致力于化学分析、生命科学分析的专业常识,欢迎大家推广微信公众号“分析圈”。Analysis circle is committed to chemical analysis, life science analysis of professional knowledge, welcome to promote the WeChat public number analysis circle".

0年,斯派克企业发明了氮气吹扫分光室。In 0 years, Spike invented a nitrogen purge chamber.

但是一些人仍旧执著地坚守其他光谱仪。But some people are still holding on to other spectrometers.

年代之后,越来越多的分析方法被人类所发现,色谱法、质谱法……人类对未知世界的好奇使得“原子发射光谱”贴历经了300多年后终于慢慢地冷却了。在这个帖子里有人数很少但每个个体极具惊人天赋的英国科学家圈子,有一个数量庞大的理论派德国科学家圈子,还有一个喜欢将理论做成仪器的美国科学家圈子。虽然原子发射光谱理论还有新的领域值得拓展,比如激光,但是他还是老了,人们都知道这个历史悠久的精华帖,都来观摩教科书里的著名ID,但是发帖的人却越来越少,逐渐沦为了一个光谱仪器软文贴。Since the 1990s, more and more analytical methods have been discovered by humans, chromatography, mass spectrometry...... Human curiosity about the unknown world makes the atomic emission spectrum has been posted after more than 300 years and finally slowly cooled. In this post, there are few in number but each individual very amazing genius of British scientists circle, has a large number of German scientists theory circle, there is a circle of love will make us scientists theory instrument. Although the atomic emission spectrum theory and the new field of development, such as laser, but he was old, people are aware of the historic essence, to observe the famous ID in the textbook, but posting fewer and fewer people, gradually reduced to a spectrometer for soft paste.

那么有没有新的方法能够同时检测多元素、可以检测金属也可以检测非金属、可以检测重元素可以检测轻元素呢?So there is no new method can detect multiple elements, can detect metal can also detect non metal, can detect heavy elements can detect light elements?

直读光谱仪用于金属多元素同步化学分析;

在上一集的历史里面,几乎所有重要的光谱仪已经悉数登场:In the history of the last episode, almost all of the important spectrometers have been on the stage:

在这10年里,因为ICP的刺激各种光谱都打了鸡血似的升级。但是大家的主角ICP还始终躺在实验室里,一直到1974年,第一台商用ICP终于研发成功了。In this 10 years, because the stimulus spectrum of ICP are all like to play with blood upgrade. But our protagonist ICP still lying in the laboratory, until 1974, the first commercial ICP finally developed a successful.

0年,迷你低功率X射线光管被用于XRF上。In 0 years, a mini - low power X - ray tube is used on the XRF.

自从1666年,@牛顿建了“原子发射光谱”贴以后,这个帖子在三百多年的历史中不断给人类带来了精华内容,甚至楼主@牛顿自己发的内容也被后人推翻。今天,原子发射光谱的历史就要结束了,在最后的这段时间里面,新人ID继续创造了新的精华。让大家从第一个精华帖开始吧。Since 1666, after Newton built the "atomic emission spectrum", this post in the history of more than and 300 years continuously brings about the essence of the content, and even the landlord @ Newton himself sent content was later overturned. Today, the history of the atomic emission spectrum is going to be over, in the last period of time, the new ID to continue to create a new essence. Let's start with the first one.

后面的内容就简单地说吧:Behind the content is simple to say it:

在ICP的鸭梨下,XRF,原子吸取都在不断的升级,直读光谱仪终于也忍不住了。1972年,Hilger企业推出了世界上第一台便携式电弧/火花直读光谱仪。这种便携式直读光谱仪第一次使用了“激发枪”+“光纤”模式,光直接从光纤进入仪器内的分光室。今天许多企业都在争夺便携式直读光谱仪的江湖地位,但是人们几乎都忘了40年前这家叫Hilger企业,他才是真正的便携式直读光谱仪的创造者!In ICP XRF, pear, atomic absorption are constantly upgrading, direct reading spectrometer finally could not help. In 1972, Hilger launched the world's first portable arc / spark spectrometer. This portable spectrometer is used for the first time "stimulate the gun" + "fiber" mode, light directly from the optical fiber into the optical chamber within the instrument. Many companies today are competing for the portable spectrometer status, but people forget 40 years ago the company called Hilger, he is the real creator of the portable spectrometer!

X射线荧光光谱仪用于多个元素的同步化学分析。Simultaneous chemical analysis of multiple elements by X - ray fluorescence spectrometer.

7年,有一种新的设想出现了,@W.Grimm发明了辉光放电光源。虽然今天辉光放电光谱仪不算一个大众的仪器,但是在一些特定的应用场合,比如样品的表面分析,辉光放电具有非常牛X的应用。7 years, there is a new idea emerged, @W.Grimm invented the glow discharge light source. Although today glow discharge spectrometer is not a popular instrument, but in some specific applications, such as the surface analysis of samples, the glow discharge has a very cattle X applications.

这时候,隔壁帖子里的计算机再次扮演了英雄的角色,人算不来,电脑可以搞定。1968年,@JohnW.Criss和@LaVerneStanleyBirks两位IT男编写了第一个“基本参数法”程序,从此XRF在分析方法上走上了自己独特的道路。At this time, the next post in the computer once again played a hero role, people do not come, the computer can be done. In 1968, @JohnW.Criss and @LaVerneStanleyBirks two IT men wrote the first "basic parameter method" program, from the XRF in the analysis method on their own unique way.

3年,英国科学家@StanleyGreenfield发明了震惊分析圈的一种仪器:电感耦合等离子发射光谱仪,简称ICP。(分析圈注:英国老是出这种石破天惊的科学家,现在还有个霍顿)这种新型的原子发射光谱仪克服了上述所有光谱仪的弱点,真正做到了多元素、多基体、全覆盖地检测。今天ICP也是应用领域最为广泛的一款光谱仪。3 years, the British scientist @StanleyGreenfield invented the shock analysis circle of an instrument: inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, referred to as ICP. (Note: the analysis of circle about the practice of British scientists, now there is Horton) to overcome the weakness of this model all spectrometer atomic emission spectrometer, truly multi elements and multi matrix, full coverage detection. Today ICP is also the most widely used in the field of a spectrometer.

2年,Thermo企业第一次在光谱仪上使用了CID检测器。For the first time in 2 years, Thermo used a CID detector in the spectrometer.

XRF虽然可以同时检测多元素,可以检测金属非金属,但是不能分析元素周期表里面的轻元素。Although XRF can detect multiple elements simultaneously, it can detect metal non metal, but it can not analyze the light elements in the periodic table.

因为ICP检测的时间太长了,三位科学家再次提出了一种更穿越的光谱仪。1966年,@R.G.Tomlinson,@“原子发射光谱”贴。他们提出了激光诱导光谱仪的概念。这种采用激光作为光源的方法不仅能够检测各种形态的样品,固体、液体、气体,而且能够检测元素周期表里所有元素(分析圈注:理论上H也是可以测的),同时能够同时进行多元素分析,最后,这种仪器的检测速度极快,秒级别的。即使是以速度见长的直读光谱仪、XRF也远远不如。这也是为什么分析圈上一集信誓旦旦地预言激光诱导将会成为一种重量级光谱仪的原因。Because the ICP test time is too long, three scientists once again put forward a more through the spectrometer. 1966, @R.G.Tomlinson, @ atomic emission spectrometry. They put forward the concept of laser induced spectrometer. This method uses laser as a light source can not only detect various forms of samples, solid, liquid and gas, but also can detect all elements of the periodic table of elements (Note: the theory analysis of ring H can be measured at the same time), capable of simultaneous multi elemental analysis, the detection speed, this instrument, second level. Even if it is known for its speed, far less than the XRF direct reading spectrometer. This is why the loop analysis on a set of promises to predict will be the cause of a laser induced heavyweight spectrometer.

3年,,将EDXRF的检测极限提高到了痕量分析级别。In 3 years, the detection limit of EDXRF is increased to the level of trace analysis.


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